- تاریخ انتشار: 5 شهریور 1401
Types of sterilizer (autoclave) with application
Types of sterilizers (autoclave):
Vertical steam sterilizers
Horizontal steam sterilizers
Desktop steam sterilizer
Steam sterilization is the most widely available and widely used sterilization method. This method is non-toxic, cost-effective, suitable for processing thermally unstable materials, eliminates the risk of cross-infection and is highly effective against all biological agents, incl. Prions This method is recommended by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control for use in medical institutions.
The steam sterilization method, which is carried out in autoclaves, involves cleaning materials with water vapor at a certain temperature and pressure for a certain period of time.
Therefore, the main features of steam sterilization are:
Steam – “dry” (heated to a temperature above the boiling point) steam is preferred.
Pressure – necessary to reach high temperatures in the autoclave;
Temperature – as a rule, 121 ° C and 132 ° C;
Time – The set temperature must be maintained for the minimum time necessary to destroy the biological agents in the chamber. For packaged medical devices, the minimum sterilization time is: 30 minutes at 121°C and 4 minutes at 132°C. Sterilization time may vary depending on the type of product and material.
Structurally, sterilizers (autoclaves) are divided into two types:
Disinfectors that remove air from the chamber by gravity and pre-evacuation devices. In sterilizers of the first type, the steam enters the chamber from above or from the sides and pushes the air to the lower part of the sterilization chamber and then exits through the outlet. Gravity sterilizers are mainly used to process laboratory environments, liquids, pharmaceuticals and non-porous products whose surfaces are in direct contact with steam. In sterilizers of this type, the time of sterilizing porous materials increases, which is due to the incomplete removal of air and, as a result, reducing the rate of steam penetration into the pores. High-performance frontline sterilizers are equipped with a vacuum pump to remove air from the chamber and sterilization load. Therefore, steam can easily penetrate even porous materials. Sterilizers also differ in the way of loading (horizontal and vertical), the number of sterilization programs and additional functions.